Monday, December 28, 2009


1.0 PURPOSE :-

To provide guidelines to handle materials within the factory premises and certain minimum precautions required to be observed when handling and transporting materials.


All materials, particularly those known to be hazardous, should be handled according to laid down safety procedures as specified by the manufactures or suppliers to avoid accidents and minimise health hazards. The Guidelines here cover care to be exercised during transfer of flammable solvents and corrosive or toxic materials from tanker vehicles to storage tanks, transportation of such materials to process area, movement and handing of materials at various stages of production.


For handling tanker loads.

2.1 Provide approved grounding (earthing ) system when flammable material is involved. Ensure earthing wires are attached and coupled with the outlet tanker valve and inlet hose-pipe of the receiving storage tank. Allow sufficient time for accumulated charge to drain before starting transfer operation.

Minimise static electricity build-up potential when handling flammable solvents.

2.2 Storage tanks must be grounded, so also all flanges of transfer pipelines must be provided with jumper-wires when handling/transferring of flammable solvents.

2.3 Transfer pump must be earthed.

2.4 Inspect all hoses, couplings and fittings for cleanliness. Replace deteriorated/corroded parts.

2.5 Install fire-alarm facility near the unloading site.

1.1 Provide a deluge-type safety shower when handling corrosives.

1.2 Provide suitable fire – extinguishers, sand or other suitable spill absorbing materials in the nearby area.

1.3 Where required provide personal protective equipment for handling acids, caustics and such other hazardous materials.

1.4 Prepare an emergency action plan to handle any emergency likely to arise due to spillage of such materials during unloading / transfer of materials.

1.5 Label all tanks, transfer pipes to reveal their contents. Do not use common hose-pipe or transfer-pumps or transfer lines.

Saturday, December 26, 2009



To maintain First Aid Box .


For emergency first aid.


Concern supervisor / chemist,

Q.C. Incharge


1. Tincture Iodine

2. Mercurochrome

3. Eye wash solution ( Optrex )

4. Eye Drops (Frutico )

5. Burnol

6. Soframycin (Oinment )

7. Sterilised Cotton Wool.

8. Band-aid

9. Jhonshon Tape

10. Anticeptic Solution (Dettol)

11. Paracetamol tablets

12. Nebasulf powder

13. Iodex

14. Pair of Scissor

15. Bandage .

Thursday, December 24, 2009



To provide a procedures for safe use of ladders at work place


Ladders are generally used to reach and work at an elevated point.

It is not uncommon to find people using chairs, boxes, broken or unsafe ladders, etc. for climbing. Falls are invitable. Most of the injured may not have even received proper instructions in the safe use of ladders.

Guidelines are provided here to use ladders correctly.


2.1 Inspect ladders before use. Looks out for broken or missing rungs, siderails, oily or greasy step (rungs). Repairs them or replace them f found defective.

2.2 Check feet of ladders to ensurre they are study and not easy to get slipped.

2.3 Select right ladder for a required job. Ladder should not be too long or too short.

Appropriate length could be when one can reach to the point of work without

over-stretching, standing on the 3rd or 4th rung from top.


2.4 Extension ladders must have an overlap of atleast 3 rungs.

2.5 Do not place portable single ladder in a perpendicular position. Safe rule is to set the base

of the ladder one quarter the working length of the ladder from the wall.

2.6 Ensure that the portable single ladder is tied or supported securely to any firm pipe-line

or railing. In case holding facility is not available, provide for a standby person to steady the


2.7 Stepladders should also be checked for side-bar locking arrangement – Make sure legs

are fully open before stepping on the ladder. DO NOT STAND ON THE TOP PLLATE OF THE


2.8 When climbing, keep both the hands on the siderails.

2.9 When working, keep one hand on the ladder, however, when both hands have to be free

for working, use ladder safety belt.

2.1 While working or descending, face the ladder. Don’t Rush . Don’t jump off the


2.2 When working, ensure that your body remains within the siderails and you have not to

lean excessively to reach to a point of work.

Move the ladder, if you have to lean too far.

2.3 When climbing, beware of overhead hazards such as ceiling fans, wires, pielines, etc.


ELECTRICAL RREPAIRES. Wet wodden ladders are equally dangerous.

2.5 Using fixed ladders (attached to high rise structure or a tank) attach safety belt to safety

sliding device on ladder or ensure metal hoop-cage is provided when structure is very tall (20

feet or more).

2.6 Inspect at regular intervals rungs, cage attachments to structure, and ensure proper


2.7 Always face ladder when climbing or descending fixed ladders.

Wednesday, December 23, 2009



The procedure outlined here applies to all maintenance, modification, repair and ------ jobs involving open flame or sparks in all arreas of the factory expect welding shop.


It shall be the responsibility of the issuing authority of the HOT WORK PERMIT (WHP) to ensure that the area where the hot work is required to be carried out is cleared of flammable and combustible materials, and where hot work is required to repair equipment, pipelines, confined space (tanks) etc., they are adequately washed, ventilated and gas tested to ensure concentration of solvent vapours, flammable gases are within the allowable safe limits. It shall be the responsibility of the issuing authority safe limits . it shall be the responsibility of the issuing authority to ensure that the persons who are to carry out the hot job are fully informed of the hazards involved and the precautions to be taken while carrying out the hot work. If work is entrusted to outside contractor, ensure that the persons involved are fully informed of the above.


See chapter 13.0 under section on ‘Welding and Gas Cutting’.


4.1 A HOT WORK PERMIT is initiated by the department concerned.

The issuance of the WHP in the prescribed form (specimen attached) is approved by the head of the department or his designate, before the hot work is under taken.

4.2 The WHP is prepared in duplicate and both the copies are handed over to the Engineering Dept,/Contractor indicating thereon likely hazards and specific precautions required to be taken before and white carrying out the hot work.

4.1 Results of the gas detector tests and /or explosimeter readings are to be recorded on the permit. If considered necessary, the shift Engineer may demand repeat tests before the start up of the job. All results are to be recorded and signed.

4.2 The shift Engineer should explain to the tradesman (welders/s) the nature of the job, the hazards that may be encountered and specific precautions to be taken, who inturn should countersign the HWP indicating that they have been explained and they have understood the hazardsand precautions to be taken.

4.3 The welder should handover the duplicate copy of the HWP to the issuer (dept. head/dept. supervisor) and proceed to carry out the required hot work.

4.4 Upon completion of the job, the welder notifies the shift Engineer who will ensure that the work is completed and all flame or spark producing equipment/welding machines are removed from the work permit area.

4.5 After ascertaining the completion of the job, the shift Engineer should sign the duplicate copy of the HWP earlier handed over to the concerned department, thereby releasing the area for work.

4.6 The shift engineer also makes appropriate entry on the original copy of the HWP indicating the completion of the job.

4.7 Records of HWP may be destroyed after one month of the completion of the job.


5.1 Follow confined space entry procedure (chapter 11.0) when entering tanks, ducts, pipe-lines or any such confined space. Obtain confined space entry permit before starting hot work.

5.2 The locations where hot sparks are likely to fall during the hot work should be cleared of all the materials.

5.3 Provide appropriate type (s) of fire extinguishers at the location of hot work and where situation demand, keep the fire hydrant hose lines ready for operation. It is suggested to have a fire fighter posted near the work location.

5.4 Consult safety officer any specific guidance is required.

Sunday, December 20, 2009


Cyanides ( water soluble )- colourless crystals or powders which are soluble in water and react with acids to generate hydrogen cyanide. Cyanides and hydrogen cyanide are extremely poisonous. Both the cyanide solutions and the gas can be absorbed thorough the skin. Whatever the route of absorption, severe poisoning may result.


Handling of highly poisonous compounds, especially cyanides, calls for special regulatory control procedures. Use of such compounds in the laboratory control procedures. use of such compounds in the laboratory should be restricted and only selected group of qualified chemists/analysts should be allowed to handle the materials. Training to cover handling, storage and disposal of cyanides, and in the event of any accident familiarity with first aid procedure s considered essential.


2.1 Handle cyanides with caution.

2.2 Store cyanides in ‘Poison’ cupboard, securely locked. Ensure containers are well sealed, after each use, and then only placed in the cupboard.

2.3 Regulate issuance of the material. Maintain a separate register showing stock held, quantity used, balance stock; obtain signature of the approving person (dept. manager or his designate), date and time of withdrawal and date and time of the return of the container.

2.4 Work under fume-hood. DO NOT inhale cyanide fumes. Wear gloves and breathing apparatus (particularly when handling large quantities and emergencies).

2.5 Always use mechanical pipetting devices for cyanide solutions.

2.6 After using cyanides, wash the work place and contaminated glasswares with mild alkali solution followed by water.

2.7 Small quantity of cyanide soltion may be disposed of in the laboratory drain, followed by alkaline solution and flushing with plenty of water.

2.8 DO NOT POUR ACIDS in drains immediately following disposals of cyanide solution.

1.1 When cyanide solutions have been spilt, bleaching powder should be scattered liberally over the spillage, or an excess of sodium hypochlorite solution added. The treated spillage should be mopped up into a bucket and allowed to stand for 24 hours before running into waste, diluting greatly into running water. Solid cyanides should be swept up and placed in a large volume of water in which they can be rendered innocuous by adding an excess of sodium hypochlorite solution and allowing to stand for 24 hours before running to waste, diluting greatly into running water. Wear gloves while handling disposal of cyanide solution.

1.2 Keep cyanide antidotes and Amyl Nitrile capsules handy in the laboratory. Get familiar with the first aid procedure.

1.3 Wash any contacted skin area with soap and water at once.


2.1 Remove the victim from the exposure area and keep him warm. Break a capsule of Amyl Nitrile and allow victim to inhale forr 15 to 30 seconds.

Repeat inhalation of Amyl Nitrile every 2 – 3 minutes.

2.2 If breathing stops give artificial respiration.


2.3 If cyanide is swallowed, give antidote solution-

Solution A: 158 gms of ferrous sulphate crystals + 3 gms of citric acid crystals dissolved in a liter

of distilled water.(This solutioon must be periodically inspected and replaced).

Solution B: 60 gm of anhydrous sodium bicarbonate in a litre of distilled


Store solution A and solution B in separate glass bottles, properly labelled indicating that in the

event of cyanide poisoning mix 50 ml of solution A with 50 ml of solution B and administer the

mixture to the victim by oral route.

Saturday, December 12, 2009


1.1 Materials received in drums, boxes, carboys etc. are transported on pallets using

hand trolleys, forklift trucks etc.

1.2 Do not throw loaded drum of hazardous chemicals while loading / unloading.

1.3 All flammable liquids must be stored in tightly sealed containers.

1.4 Maintain in the warehousing area, aisle space of atleast one meter for easy

movement of materials.

1.5 Ventilate storage room . it is desirable to have exhaust vent (S) just above floor

level on one side of the room and make – up inlet (S) on apposite wall.

1.6 Storage room where large where large quantities of liquids are stored must have

an emergency exit door, clearly marked.

1.7 Provide portable fire-extinguishers in the area of storage.

NOTE :- 1 Strictly prohibit smoking or carrying of any other

source of ignition around storage of flammable (e. g. matches).

2 Let trained personnel handle transfer of corrosives and flammable materials.

3 Inspect and test tanks valves hoses, and transfer lines regularly.

1.8 While handling any material by cranes, cables ropes etc. ensure that the load is properly balanced and is not overweighed above the rated capacity of the lifting equipment.

1.9 Install necessary barricades, warning signs to prevent anyone from walking beneath the load.

1.10 When any material is lifted by cable, rope etc. ensure to provide a ropeline for guiding the object while it is in a suspended position. Minimise its swinging in the air.


1.1 Glass bottles of capacity of two litres and above must be transported in a safety bucket or on a trolley. Do not transport solvents open containers.

1.2 While lifting manually any material from floor height, do not bend at your waist to lift. Always bend on your knees, keep back straight and lift by straightening your legs. Improper lifting by bending your spine may result in serious injury to your spinal cord, or could strain your back.

1.3 Material movement equipment must be operated as per written down operating procedures. Travelling or riding on hand trolleys or fork-lift truck must be prohibited.

1.4 Before using a chain, cable, sling, rope or any other material handling equipment, make visual check to make sure there is nothing obviously defective about the equipment.

1.5 To minimise noise level during material handling

- reduce dropping height of goods being collected in boxes.

- Use soft rubber mats to receive hard impacts.

- Select belt conveyors instead of roller conveyors for transporting materials within the work area.

1.6 While while above are general guidelines, consult the safety officer for specific instructions.

1.7 All grounding cables should be adequately checked by a competent electrical engineer.

1.8 All electrical fitting in storage and handling areas of flammable solvents should be explosion proof.

Friday, December 11, 2009


1.0 PURPOSE :-

To enumerate a few guidelines for good house keeping at place of work.

Explanation : Good housekeeping is very essential for health and safety. Effective

housekeeping helps to create orderly and healthy working conditions.


2.1 Keep clean and in order the work area and the equipment handled.

2.2 Keep floors dry by washings off and cleanings spillage of oil, chemicals etc. Dipose

of oil rages, old paint cans and containers that have held flammable solvents, which are a

fire hazard.

2.3 Deposit garbage, wastes, scraps etc. in appropriately marked containers.

2.4 Clean broken lass with a broom and pan. Broken pieces of glass must be picked up

from the floor by using a wet cloth and never with bare hands.

2.5 Keep tools clean and store them in their proper places when not in use.

2.6 Do not overcrowd your work table and make it difficult to work.

2.7 Be careful to clean up the work place after finishing a job. It is preferable to clean

up the work place after finishing a job. It is preferable to clean up after every stage of

work / operation. Work / operation. Pick up tripping hazards such as nuts, bolts, nails,

pieces of pipe etc., and dispose them off in waste containers.

2.8 Keep all gangways, fire doors, exits and star-case from obstructions. Make certain

that all fire fighting equipment are readily accessible.

2.9 Keep floors clean and in good repair.

2.10 Store material in an orderly manner.

2.11 Clean laboratory work benches of all unwanted reagents and chemicals, label

clearly all bottles and containers.

2.12 Keep your lockers clean and avoid keeping soiled clothing, dangerous materials,

perishable eatables etc. in them.


Sunday, December 6, 2009


1.0 PURPOSE :-

To outline precautions to be taken while inserting glass rod/tube in rubber tubing, rubber bung

or cork during laboratory work.


2.1 Ensure that the glass tube end is ground smooth or rounded smooth.

2.2 Choose the rubber tubing to fit glass connection snugly with the end of the tube cut at an angle so that it will stretch easily. In case of bung or cork, make sure to select the correct bore So that insertion can be made without excessive strain.

2.3 Wet the glass tube an rubber tube, bung or cork with water or glycerine.

2.4 Hold rubber tube/bung between the thumb and index finger, not in palm of hand.

2.5 Grasp the glass tube close to the end which is to fit into the rubber tube or bung and push it in with an even pressure using a steady but gentle rotating motion.

2.6 Wear leather or cotton gloves or wrap a towel around the palms and fingers of the hands holding glass tubing.

Friday, December 4, 2009



1.1 Never start an experiment on a bench already crowded with apparatus.

1.2 Avoid leaving a laboratory experiment unattended.

1.3 In case an experiment should be left overnight, involved, the scale of the experiment and the level of the supervision available.

Regular supervision by a competent person who has been fully briefed on possible hazards

should be arranged. (Danger periods are during initial heating, when approaching boiling points

or reaction temperatures, and during additions of further reactants or catalysts).

1.4 Before starting an experiment familiarize yourself and your assistants with all the known

hazards of the starting materials and end products. Decide on appropriate safeguard and


Great care must be taken with unknown combinations of chemical reagents. Anything

unexpected occurs during your experiment, consult your immediate supervisor.

2.0 Machinery :

2.1 Always treat moving machinery with the greates care. Observe necessary safety precautions stipulated by the safety manual.

2.2 Never remove the guards or safety-devices from a machine.


3.1 Use lubricant and a cloth for protection when inserting glass tubing, rods or thermometers into bungs or tubing.

3.2 The safest way to carry lengths of glass rod/tubing is in the upright position. Cut ends of glass rods / tubings should be fire polished before use. Take care in handling glass capillaries.

3.3 Glassware used under vacuum presents a hazard because of the possibility of implosion and should be always inspected before use.

Vacuum desiccators should be protected with a framework of wire or nylon. Air admittance

should be carried out gradually.


1.1 Experiments using hazardous chemicals should be carried out in fume cupboards so as not to endanger co-workers.

Suitable respiratory protection should be always on hand.

1.2 Observe special precautions when handling new organic substances of which the toxic hazards are unknown.

1.3 Wear Eye protection (safety glasses), and where considered necessary use face shield and protective gloves.

1.4 Operations involving grinding of glass vials, ampoules – for glass alkalinity test – grinding of materials, sieving of powders or working with aerosol sprays require wearing of protective wears such as face-shield, rubber gloves etc.

1.5 Always use an approved pipette filter. Never fill pipette using your mouth.

1.6 When boiling a solution in a test tube, keep the mouth of the test tube away from co-worker working next to you or own self.

2.0 Fume Cupboards / Portable Safety Screens :

2.1 Fume cupboards and portable safety screens afford additional protection. Make proper use of them for hazardous operations particularly involving exothermic reactions. Always carry out chemicals reactions and distillations in fume cupboards where there is any possibility of a hazard.

3.0 Flammable Solvents :

3.1 Use a water bath, steam bath or electric heating mantle when using large amounts of flammable solvents. Isolate such experiments. Ensurre that adequate fire extinguishers are available

3.2 Get to know the position of the main laboratory controls for electricity, gas and water and see that they are not in anyway obstructed.

Remember that :-

-Catch-trays may be used to localise possible solvent fibres.

-Electrostatic discharge can ignite flammable vapour /air mixture.

-Water-immiscible solvents must not be poured down drains.

-Always use the approved facilities for disposing of flammable solvents.

--Neveer mix waste solvents in a common bottle or a carboy. Use separate containers, clearly

marked – WASTE FOR DISPOSAL, and name of solvents.

1.0 Condenser :-

1.1 Check the condition of flexible condenser tubing and ensure that it does not become trapped. Check that all connections to a condenser are well secured with clips and be extremely careful with tap settings. The water flow may vary as the conditions change.

2.0 Glassware :-

2.1 Examine all glassware before use for damage, star crack or even a scratch as these defects can cause failure under vacuum.

2.2 Never store broken glassware in cupboards. Either send it for repair or ensure its proper disposal.

2.3 Support all large glass adequately. Do not clamp a large glass vessel solely by the neck. Additional support at the base will improve stability. Never carry a winchester bottle by the neck. Use an approved carrier. Never handle large pieces of glass-ware with wet hands.

3.0 Pressurised Gas Cylinders :-

3.1 Compressed gas cylinders should be always in the upright position and properly supported with stand and chain.

3.2 Use only the permitted valves and regulators. Regulators must be free from oil and grease.

3.3 Before connecting up a gas cylinder, always ensure that the correct gas is being used by carefully checking the printed name of the gas on the cylinder.

(Do not rely on colour codes as these may vary according to the supplier and country of origin).

3.4 Always provide a surge vessel and a system of taps between a gas cylinder and reaction vessel.

1.1 Always turn off, a gas cylinder at the main valve after use and release any excess pressure in the regulator.

1.2 Use approved cylinder trolley for transfer of gas cylinders.

Never handle or lift a cylinder by holding its valve.

1.3 Store pressurised gas cylinders n a cool, ventilated place.

2.0 Electricity :-

2.1 Remember that electricity is dangerous. Death could occur at 60 volts AC.

2.2 See that all wires are properly insulated.

2.3 Ensure that no water points or rubber connections carrying water are allowed to leak on to electrical plugs and switches.

2.4 Worn or damaged cables, sockets and plugs are all dangerous.

Report all electrical faults to your laboratory head/ Maintenance section. Get them replaced.

2.5 All electrical repairs including the replacement of fuses, should always be carried out by an electrician.

3.0 Store –room / Refrigerators :

3.1 Laboratory store-rooms and refrigerators should be inspected regularly.

Hazardous chemicals should not be stored indefinitely but safety disposed of after a project is



3.2 All samples should be properly labelled. Lquid samples should be in closed vessels and be placed on metal drip trays.

3.3 Electrical controls and switches inside refrigerators and freezers may cause sparks which could be a source of ignition for flammable vapours. DO NOT STORE FLAMMABLE SOLVENTS IN THE REFRIGERATOR. Refrigerators should be defrosted rregularly. Do not store food items in the refrigerators.

1.0 Biological / Radiation Hazard :-

1.1 Ensure that special precautions are observed when work on pathogenic micro-organisms or radioactive isotopes is carried out in the laboratory.